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Мазмұны

Жалпы ақпарат

Себептері

Симптомдары

Диагностика

Емдеу

Болжамы

Мүмкін асқынулары

Қашан дәрігерге көріну қажет

Алдын алу

Синонимдары

 

Жалпы ақпарат

Халязион – қабақтың ауруы, мейбоми безінің шығу каналының бітелуімен сипатталады. 

Көз – сфера тәрізді көру ағзасы. Ол сұйықтыққа толы. Аққабықтан, мөлдірқабықтан тұратын көздің сыртқы қабаты қорғаныс қызметін атқарады. Көздің ортаңғы қабаты тамырлардан тұрады. Ішкі қабаты (торқабық) нервтерден және жарық-түске сезімтал жалғамдардан тұрады. Сондай-ақ, мөлдірқабықтың артында орналасқан нұрлы қабық бар, ол –жұқа қозғалмалы пластина, ортасында қарашық аталатын дөңгелек ойығы бар. Оның артында қарақ (көз бұршағы) орналасқан, ол – линза түріндегі мөлдір созылмалы дене, оның басты қызметі – жарықты сындыру. Конъюнктива – қабақтың ішкі бөлігін жауып тұратын сілемей қабығы.

Себептері

Халязион  мейбоми бездерінің бірінің шығу жолы бітелгенде пайда болады. Бұл бездер қабақтың шетінде кірпіктің астында орналасқан; олар көзді шаятын майлы сұйықтықты өндіреді.

Симптомдары

Халязион көбінесе, теріскеннен (ішкі гордеолумнан) кейін пайда болады. Бұл кезде әдетте, қабақ қызарып, ісініп, ыстық болады. Кейде теріскеннің салдарынан без босатылмайды, бірақ, қызару және ісік басылады. Без қабақтағы мықты, серпімді түйінге айналады, бұл халязион аталады.

Диагностика

Қабақты қарау диагнозды нақтылайды.

Сирек жағдайда терінің қатерлі ісігі халязион секілді көрінеді. Егер мұндай күдіктер болса, биопсия қажет болады.

Емдеу

Халязион көбінесе, бір айға жуық уақыт ішінде емдеусіз өтеді.

  • Емдеуде қабаққа күніне төрт рет, 10-15 минуттан жылы компресс қойылады. Ыстық емес суды қолдану қажет. Бұл бездің каналды бітеген қатайған бөліндісін жібітеді және босатылуына көмектеседі, сондықтан сауығуға апарады.
  • Халязионды басуға тырыспаңыз.

Егер халязионның өлшемі ұлғайса, оны хирургиялық жолмен алып тастау қажет. Тілік теріде тыртық болмас үшін, көбінесе, қабақтың ішкі жағынан жасалады.

Инъекциялық стероидтық препараттар – емдеудің басқа нұсқасы.

Болжамы

Халязион, әдетте, өздігінше жазылады. Емдеу оң нәтиже береді.

Мүмкін асқынулары

Халязион өздігінше жазылғанмен, қабақта тыртық қалады. Бұл мәселе көбінесе, халязионды оперативтік емдеуде кездеседі, бірақ, сирек болады. Бірнеше кірпіктен айырылу, немесе  қабақтың шетінде шағын науашық қалуы мүмкін. Жиі кездесетін асқынуы – аурудың қайталануы.

Қашан дәрігерге көріну қажет

Емдеуге қарамастан, қабақтағы түйін өсетін болса, немесе кірпік жоғалтылған бөлік бар болса, дәрігерге көріну қажет.

Алдын алу

Халязионның немесе теріскеннің алдын алу үшін қабаққа және кірпік өсетін сызыққа түнге қарай жұмсақ скрабты (өңезді жоятын құрал) жағу көмектеседі. Көзді тазарту үшін арнайы губканы (спонджды), езілген балалар сусабынын қолдану қажет.

Тазалағаннан кейін дәрігер тағайындаған антиобитігі бар жақпа майды қолдану қажет.

Синонимдары

Мейбоми безінің липогранулемасы.

 

Ақпарат көзі: АҚШ Ұлттық денсаулық институттарының мәліметтер қоры: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001006.htm

Аудармашы: Асель Стамбекова, HealthСity жобасының дербес үйлестірушісі

Редакциялық алқа:

Алмаз Шарман, медицина профессоры

Ләзат Ақтаева, м.ғ.д.

Сәлім Смайылов, б.ғ.к.

 

 

Мазмұны

Жалпы ақпарат

Себептері

Симптомдары

Диагностика

Емдеу

Болжамы

Мүмкін асқынулары

Қашан дәрігерге көріну қажет

Болжамы

Синонимдері

 

Жалпы ақпарат

Конъюнктивит – бұл қабақтың ішінің сілемей қабатының (конъюнктиваның) қабынуы (ісінуі) немесе инфекциясы.

Себептері

Конъюнктива бактериялардың және басқа тітіркендіргіштердің әрекетіне ұшырайды. Көз жасы бактерияларды шайып, конъюнктиваны қорғауға көмектеседі. Сондай-ақ, көз жасында ақуыздар және бактерияларды жоятын антиденелер болады.

Конъюнктивиттің пайда болуының көптеген себептері бар. Вирустар аса кең таралған себебін құрайды. Вирустық  конъюнктивитті «қызғылт көз» деп те атайды. «Қызғылт көз» балалардың арасында жеңіл тарауы мүмкін.

Басқа себептері:

  •  Аллергия (аллергиялық конъюнктивит)
  • Бактериялар
  • Кейбір басқа аурулар
  • Химиялық әсер ету
  • Хламидиялар
  • Зеңдер
  • Паразиттер (сирек)
  • Контактілік линзаларды қолдану (әсіресе, ұзақ уақыт бойы қолдануға арналған линзалар)

Жаңа туған сәбилер босану жолдарында бактериялармен жұқпалануы мүмкін. Бұл жағдай жаңа туған сәбилердің офтальмиясы аталады, көруді сақтау үшін бұл дереу емделуі тиіс.

 

Симптомдары

 

Диагностика

  • Көзді зерттеу
  • Талдау үшін конъюнктивадан қырынды алу

 

Емдеу

Конъюнктивитті емдеу себебіне байланысты.

Аллергиялық конъюнктивит аллергияны емдеу кезінде жазылып кетуі мүмкін.  Аллергияны туындатқан себебімен қатынас жойылса, өз бетінше жазылып кетуі мүмкін. Суық компресс қою аллергиялық конъюнктивитті басуға көмектесуі мүмкін.

Антибиотикпен емдеу, көбінесе, көз тамшылары, бактериалдық конъюнктивитте тиімді.

Вирустық конъюнктивит өз бетінше өтеді.

Көптеген дәрігерлер «қызғылт көз» кезінде  бактериалдық конъюнктивиттің алдын алу үшін жеңіл  антибактериалдық көз тамшыларын тағайындайды.

Сіз вирустық немесе бактериалдық конъюнктивит кезінде жылы компресс қолдану арқылы жайсыздықты баса аласыз (көзге жабық күйінде жылы суға малынған матаны басу қажет).

 

Болжамы

Емдеу салдары, әдетте, сәтті болжамды.

 

Мүмкін асқынулары

Сақтық шараларын қадағалмайтын болсаңыз, ауруды үйде немесе мектепте қайтадан жұқтыруыңыз мүмкін.

 

Қашан дәрігерге көріну қажет

Симптомдары 3 немесе 4 күннен артық созылса, емдеуші дәрігеріңізге көрініңіз.

 

Болжамы

Мұқият гигиена конъюнктивиттің таралуының алдын алуға көмектеседі:

  • Жастықтың тысын жиі ауыстырыңыз
  • Көзге арналған косметикаңызды басқаларға бермеңіз.
  • Сүлгілеріңізді немесе қол орамалын басқаларға бермеңіз.
  • Контактілік линзаларды дұрыс қолданыңыз және тазалаңыз.
  • Көзіңізді қолыңызбен ұстамаңыз.
  • Косметиканы жиі алмастырыңыз.
  • Қолыңызды жиі жуыңыз.

 

Синонимдер

Конъюнктиваның қабынуы; Қызғылт көз.

 

Ақпарат көзі: АҚШ Ұлттық денсаулық институттарының мәліметтер қоры: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001010.htm

Аудармашы: Ирина Гончарова, HealthСity жобасының дербес үйлестірушісі

Редакциялық алқа:

Алмаз Шарман, медицина профессоры

Ләзат Ақтаева, м.ғ.д.

Сәлім Смайылов, б.ғ.к.

Contents

Causes

Symptoms

Treatment

Outlook (Prognosis)

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Prevention

 

Bursitis is the swelling and irritation of a bursa. A bursa is a fluid-filled sac that acts as a cushion between a muscles, tendons, and bones.

Causes

Bursitis is often a result of overuse. It can be caused by a change in activity level, such as training for a marathon or by being overweight.

Bursitis can also be caused by trauma, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, or infection. Sometimes the cause cannot be found.

Bursitis commonly occurs in the shoulder, knee, elbow, and hip. Other areas that may be affected include the Achilles tendon and the foot.

Symptoms

Symptoms of bursitis may include any of the following:

·         Joint pain and tenderness when you press around the joint

·         Stiffness and aching when you move the affected joint

·         Swelling, warmth or redness over the joint

Treatment

Your doctor will talk to you about a treatment plan to help you resume your normal activity.

Tips to relieve bursitis pain:

·         Use ice 3 to 4 times a day for the first 2 or 3 days.

·         Cover the painful area with a towel, and place the ice on it for 15 minutes. Do not fall asleep while applying the ice. You can get frostbite if you leave it on too long.

·         When sleeping, do not lie on the side that has bursitis.

For bursitis around the hips, knees, or ankle:

·         Try not to stand for long periods.

·         Stand on a soft, cushioned surface, with equal weight on each leg.

·         Placing a pillow between your knees when lying on your side can help decrease pain.

·         Flat shoes that are cushioned and comfortable often help.

·         If you are overweight, losing weight may also be helpful.

You should avoid activities that involve repetitive movements of any body part when possible.

Other treatments include:

·         Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen

·         Physical therapy

·         Exercises you do at home to build strength and keep the joint mobile as pain goes away

·         Removing fluid from the bursa and getting a shot of corticosteroid

As the pain goes away, your doctor or nurse may suggest exercises to build strength and keep movement in the painful area.

Surgery is rarely needed.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Some people do well with treatment. When the cause cannot be corrected, you may have long-term pain.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your health care provider if symptoms recur or do not improve after 3 to 4 weeks of treatment, or if the pain is getting worse.

Prevention

When possible, avoid activities that include repetitive movements of any body parts.

 

Source: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000419.htm

Content

What is prostatitis?

What is the prostate?

What causes prostatitis?

How common is prostatitis?

Who is more likely to develop prostatitis?

What are the symptoms of prostatitis?

What are the complications of prostatitis?

When to Seek Medical Care

How is prostatitis diagnosed?

Personal and Family Medical History

Physical Exam

Medical Tests

How is prostatitis treated?

How can prostatitis be prevented?

Eating, Diet, and Nutrition

Points to Remember

 

What is prostatitis?

Prostatitis is a frequently painful condition that involves inflammation of the prostate and sometimes the areas around the prostate.

Scientists have identified four types of prostatitis:

·       chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome

·       acute bacterial prostatitis

·       chronic bacterial prostatitis

·       asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis

Men with asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis do not have symptoms. A health care provider may diagnose asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis when testing for other urinary tract or reproductive tract disorders. This type of prostatitis does not cause complications and does not need treatment.

What is the prostate?

The prostate is a walnut-shaped gland that is part of the male reproductive system. The main function of the prostate is to make a fluid that goes into semen. Prostate fluid is essential for a man’s fertility. The gland surrounds the urethra at the neck of the bladder. The bladder neck is the area where the urethra joins the bladder. The bladder and urethra are parts of the lower urinary tract. The prostate has two or more lobes, or sections, enclosed by an outer layer of tissue, and it is in front of the rectum, just below the bladder. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. In men, the urethra also carries semen out through the penis.

The prostate is a walnut-shaped gland that is part of the male reproductive system.

What causes prostatitis?

The causes of prostatitis differ depending on the type.

Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. The exact cause of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is unknown. Researchers believe a microorganism, though not a bacterial infection, may cause the condition. This type of prostatitis may relate to chemicals in the urine, the immune system’s response to a previous urinary tract infection (UTI), or nerve damage in the pelvic area.

Acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. A bacterial infection of the prostate causes bacterial prostatitis. The acute type happens suddenly and lasts a short time, while the chronic type develops slowly and lasts a long time, often years. The infection may occur when bacteria travel from the urethra into the prostate.

How common is prostatitis?

Prostatitis is the most common urinary tract problem for men younger than age 50 and the third most common urinary tract problem for men older than age 50.1 Prostatitis accounts for about two million visits to health care providers in the United States each year.2

Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is the most common and least understood form of prostatitis. Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome can occur in men of any age group and affects 10 to 15 percent of the U.S. male population.3

Who is more likely to develop prostatitis?

The factors that affect a man’s chances of developing prostatitis differ depending on the type.

Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Men with nerve damage in the lower urinary tract due to surgery or trauma may be more likely to develop chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Psychological stress may also increase a man’s chances of developing the condition.

Acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Men with lower UTIs may be more likely to develop bacterial prostatitis. UTIs that recur or are difficult to treat may lead to chronic bacterial prostatitis.

What are the symptoms of prostatitis?

Each type of prostatitis has a range of symptoms that vary depending on the cause and may not be the same for every man. Many symptoms are similar to those of other conditions.

Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. The main symptoms of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome can include pain or discomfort lasting 3 or more months in one or more of the following areas:

·       between the scrotum and anus

·       the central lower abdomen

·       the penis

·       the scrotum

·       the lower back

Pain during or after ejaculation is another common symptom. A man with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome may have pain spread out around the pelvic area or may have pain in one or more areas at the same time. The pain may come and go and appear suddenly or gradually. Other symptoms may include

·       pain in the urethra during or after urination.

·       pain in the penis during or after urination.

·       urinary frequency—urination eight or more times a day. The bladder begins to contract even when it contains small amounts of urine, causing more frequent urination.

·       urinary urgency—the inability to delay urination.

·       a weak or an interrupted urine stream.

Acute bacterial prostatitis. The symptoms of acute bacterial prostatitis come on suddenly and are severe. Men should seek immediate medical care. Symptoms of acute bacterial prostatitis may include

·       urinary frequency

·       urinary urgency

·       fever

·       chills

·       a burning feeling or pain during urination

·       pain in the genital area, groin, lower abdomen, or lower back

·       noctur

·       ia—frequent urination during periods of sleep

·       nausea and vomiting

·       body aches

·       urinary retention—the inability to empty the bladder completely

·       trouble starting a urine stream

·       a weak or an interrupted urine stream

·       urinary blockage—the complete inability to urinate

·       a UTI—as shown by bacteria and infection-fighting cells in the urine

Chronic bacterial prostatitis. The symptoms of chronic bacterial prostatitis are similar to those of acute bacterial prostatitis, though not as severe. This type of prostatitis often develops slowly and can last 3 or more months. The symptoms may come and go, or they may be mild all the time. Chronic bacterial prostatitis may occur after previous treatment of acute bacterial prostatitis or a UTI. The symptoms of chronic bacterial prostatitis may include

·       urinary frequency

·       urinary urgency

·       a burning feeling or pain during urination

·       pain in the genital area, groin, lower abdomen, or lower back

·       noctu

·       ria

·       painful ejaculation

·       urinary retention

·       trouble starting a urine stream

·       a weak or an interrupted urine stream

·       urinary blockage

·       a UTI

What are the complications of prostatitis?

The complications of prostatitis may include

·       bacterial infection in the bloodstream

·       prostatic abscess—a pus-filled cavity in the prostate

·       sexual dysfunction

·       inflammation of reproductive organs near the prostate

When to Seek Medical Care

A person may have urinary symptoms unrelated to prostatitis that are caused by bladder problems, UTIs, or benign prostatic hyperplasia. Symptoms of prostatitis also can signal more serious conditions, including prostate cancer.

Men with symptoms of prostatitis should see a health care provider.

Men with the following symptoms should seek immediate medical care:

·       complete inability to urinate

·       painful, frequent, and urgent need to urinate, with fever and chills

·       blood in the urine

·       great discomfort or pain in the lower abdomen and urinary tract

How is prostatitis diagnosed?

A health care provider diagnoses prostatitis based on

·       a personal and family medical history

·       a physical exam

·       medical tests

A health care provider may have to rule out other conditions that cause similar signs and symptoms before diagnosing prostatitis.

Personal and Family Medical History

Taking a personal and family medical history is one of the first things a health care provider may do to help diagnose prostatitis.

Physical Exam

A physical exam may help diagnose prostatitis. During a physical exam, a health care provider usually

·       examines a patient’s body, which can include checking for

o   discharge from the urethra

o   enlarged or tender lymph nodes in the groin

o   a swollen or tender scrotum

·       performs a digital rectal exam

A digital rectal exam, or rectal exam, is a physical exam of the prostate. To perform the exam, the health care provider asks the man to bend over a table or lie on his side while holding his knees close to his chest. The health care provider slides a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum and feels the part of the prostate that lies next to the rectum. The man may feel slight, brief discomfort during the rectal exam. A health care provider usually performs a rectal exam during an office visit, and the man does not need anesthesia. The exam helps the health care provider see if the prostate is enlarged or tender or has any abnormalities that require more testing.

Many health care providers perform a rectal exam as part of a routine physical exam for men age 40 or older, whether or not they have urinary problems.

Description: Cross section of a digital rectal exam. A health care provider’s gloved index finger is inserted into the rectum to feel the size and shape of the prostate.

3Digital rectal exam

Medical Tests

A health care provider may refer men to a urologist—a doctor who specializes in the urinary tract and male reproductive system. A urologist uses medical tests to help diagnose lower urinary tract problems related to prostatitis and recommend treatment. Medical tests may include

·       urinalysis

·       blood tests

·       urodynamic tests

·       cystoscopy

·       transre

·       ctal ultrasound

·       biopsy

·       semen analysis

Urinalysis. Urinalysis involves testing a urine sample. The patient collects a urine sample in a special container in a health care provider’s office or a commercial facility. A health care provider tests the sample during an office visit or sends it to a lab for analysis. For the test, a nurse or technician places a strip of chemically treated paper, called a dipstick, into the urine. Patches on the dipstick change color to indicate signs of infection in urine.

The health care provider can diagnose the bacterial forms of prostatitis by examining the urine sample with a microscope. The health care provider may also send the sample to a lab to perform a culture. In a urine culture, a lab technician places some of the urine sample in a tube or dish with a substance that encourages any bacteria present to grow; once the bacteria have multiplied, a technician can identify them.

Blood tests. Blood tests involve a health care provider drawing blood during an office visit or in a commercial facility and sending the sample to a lab for analysis. Blood tests can show signs of infection and other prostate problems, such as prostate cancer.

Urodynamic tests. Urodynamic tests include a variety of procedures that look at how well the bladder and urethra store and release urine. A health care provider performs urodynamic tests during an office visit or in an outpatient center or a hospital. Some urodynamic tests do not require anesthesia; others may require local anesthesia. Most urodynamic tests focus on the bladder’s ability to hold urine and empty steadily and completely and may include the following:

·       uroflowmetry, which measures how rapidly the bladder releases urine

·       postvoid residual measurement, which evaluates how much urine remains in the bladder after urination

More information is provided in the NIDDK health topic, Urodynamic Testing.

Cystoscopy. Cystoscopy is a procedure that uses a tubelike instrument, called a cystoscope, to look inside the urethra and bladder. A urologist inserts the cystoscope through the opening at the tip of the penis and into the lower urinary tract. He or she performs cystoscopy during an office visit or in an outpatient center or a hospital. He or she will give the patient local anesthesia. In some cases, the patient may require sedation and regional or general anesthesia. A urologist may use cystoscopy to look for narrowing, blockage, or stones in the urinary tract.

More information is provided in the NIDDK health topic, Cystoscopy and Ureteroscopy.

Transrectal ultrasound. Transrectal ultrasound uses a device, called a transducer, that bounces safe, painless sound waves off organs to create an image of their structure. The health care provider can move the transducer to different angles to make it possible to examine different organs. A specially trained technician performs the procedure in a health care provider’s office, an outpatient center, or a hospital, and a radiologist—a doctor who specializes in medical imaging—interprets the images; the patient does not require anesthesia. Urologists most often use transrectal ultrasound to examine the prostate. In a transrectal ultrasound, the technician inserts a transducer slightly larger than a pen into the man’s rectum next to the prostate. The ultrasound image shows the size of the prostate and any abnormalities, such as tumors. Transrectal ultrasound cannot reliably diagnose prostate cancer.

Biopsy. Biopsy is a procedure that involves taking a small piece of prostate tissue for examination with a microscope. A urologist performs the biopsy in an outpatient center or a hospital. He or she will give the patient light sedation and local anesthetic; however, in some cases, the patient will require general anesthesia. The urologist uses imaging techniques such as ultrasound, a computerized tomography scan, or magnetic resonance imaging to guide the biopsy needle into the prostate. A pathologist—a doctor who specializes in examining tissues to diagnose diseases—examines the prostate tissue in a lab. The test can show whether prostate cancer is present.

Semen analysis. Semen analysis is a test to measure the amount and quality of a man’s semen and sperm. The man collects a semen sample in a special container at home, a health care provider’s office, or a commercial facility. A health care provider analyzes the sample during an office visit or sends it to a lab for analysis. A semen sample can show blood and signs of infection.

More information is provided in the NIDDK health topic, Medical Tests for Prostate Problems.

How is prostatitis treated?

Treatment depends on the type of prostatitis.

Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Treatment for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome aims to decrease pain, discomfort, and inflammation. A wide range of symptoms exists and no single treatment works for every man. Although antibiotics will not help treat nonbacterial prostatitis, a urologist may prescribe them, at least initially, until the urologist can rule out a bacterial infection. A urologist may prescribe other medications:

·       silodo

·       sin (Rapaflo)

·       5-alpha reductase inhibitors such as finasteride (Proscar) and dutasteride (Avodart)

·       nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs—also called NSAIDs—such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen sodium

·       glycosaminogly

·       cans such as chondroitin sulfate

·       muscle relaxants such as cyclobenzaprine (Amrix, Flexeril) and clonazepam (Klonopin)

·       neuromodulators such as amitriptyline, nortriptyline (Aventyl, Pamelor), and pregabalin (Lyrica)

Alternative treatments may include

·       warm baths, called sitz baths

·       local heat therapy with hot water bottles or heating pads

·       physical therapy, such as

o   Kegel exercises—tightening and relaxing the muscles that hold urine in the bladder and hold the bladder in its proper position. Also called pelvic muscle exercises.

o   myofascial release—pressing and stretching, sometimes with cooling and warming, of the muscles and soft tissues in the lower back, pelvic region, and upper legs. Also known as myofascial trigger point release.

·       relaxation exercises

·       biofeedback

·       phytotherapy with plant extracts such as quercetin, bee pollen, and saw palmetto

·       acupuncture

To help ensure coordinated and safe care, people should discuss their use of complementary and alternative medical practices, including their use of dietary supplements, with their health care provider. Read more at www.nccam.nih.gov .

For men whose chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome symptoms are affected by psychological stress, appropriate psychiatric treatment and stress reduction may reduce the recurrence of symptoms.

To help measure the effectiveness of treatment, a urologist may ask a series of questions from a standard questionnaire called the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index. The questionnaire helps a urologist assess the severity of symptoms and how they affect the man’s quality of life. A urologist may ask questions several times, such as before, during, and after treatment.

Acute bacterial prostatitis. A urologist treats acute bacterial prostatitis with antibiotics. The antibiotic prescribed may depend on the type of bacteria causing the infection. Urologists usually prescribe oral antibiotics for at least 2 weeks. The infection may come back; therefore, some urologists recommend taking oral antibiotics for 6 to 8 weeks. Severe cases of acute prostatitis may require a short hospital stay so men can receive fluids and antibiotics through an intravenous (IV) tube. After the IV treatment, the man will need to take oral antibiotics for 2 to 4 weeks. Most cases of acute bacterial prostatitis clear up completely with medication and slight changes to diet. The urologist may recommend

·       avoiding or reducing intake of substances that irritate the bladder, such as alcohol, caffeinated beverages, and acidic and spicy foods

·       increasing intake of liquids—64 to 128 ounces per day—to urinate often and help flush bacteria from the bladder

Chronic bacterial prostatitis. A urologist treats chronic bacterial prostatitis with antibiotics; however, treatment requires a longer course of therapy. The urologist may prescribe a low dose of antibiotics for up to 6 months to prevent recurrent infection. The urologist may also prescribe a different antibiotic or use a combination of antibiotics if the infection keeps coming back. The urologist may recommend increasing intake of liquids and avoiding or reducing intake of substances that irritate the bladder.

A urologist may use alpha blockers that treat chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome to treat urinary retention caused by chronic bacterial prostatitis. These medications help relax the bladder muscles near the prostate and lessen symptoms such as painful urination. Men may require surgery to treat urinary retention caused by chronic bacterial prostatitis. Surgically removing scar tissue in the urethra often improves urine flow and reduces urinary retention.

How can prostatitis be prevented?

Men cannot prevent prostatitis. Researchers are currently seeking to better understand what causes prostatitis and develop prevention strategies.

Eating, Diet, and Nutrition

Researchers have not found that eating, diet, and nutrition play a role in causing or preventing prostatitis. During treatment of bacterial prostatitis, urologists may recommend increasing intake of liquids and avoiding or reducing intake of substances that irritate the bladder. Men should talk with a health care provider or dietitian about what diet is right for them.

Points to Remember

·       Prostatitis is a frequently painful condition that involves inflammation of the prostate and sometimes the areas around the prostate.

·       Scientists have identified four types of prostatitis:

o   chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome

o   acute bacterial prostatitis

o   chronic bacterial prostatitis

o   asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis

·       The prostate is a walnut-shaped gland that is part of the male reproductive system.

·       The causes of prostatitis differ depending on the type.

·       Prostatitis is the most common urinary tract problem for men younger than age 50 and the third most common urinary tract problem for men older than age 50.

·       Each type of prostatitis has a range of symptoms that vary depending on the cause and may not be the same for every man. Many symptoms are similar to those of other conditions.

·       The complications of prostatitis may include

o   bacterial infection in the bloodstream

o   prostatic abscess—a pus-filled cavity in the prostate

o   sexual dysfunction

o   inflammation of reproductive organs near the prostate

·       A health care provider diagnoses prostatitis based on

o   a personal and family history

o   a physical exam

o   medical tests

·       A health care provider may have to rule out other conditions that cause similar signs and symptoms before diagnosing prostatitis.

·       Treatment depends on the type of prostatitis.

·       Treatment for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome aims to decrease pain, discomfort, and inflammation.

·       A urologist treats acute bacterial prostatitis with antibiotics.

·       A urologist treats chronic bacterial prostatitis with antibiotics; however, treatment requires a longer course of therapy.

·       Men cannot prevent prostatitis.

 

Source https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/urologic-diseases/prostate-problems/prostatitis-inflammation-prostate

If you have gum disease, you're not alone. Many U.S. adults currently have some form of the disease. It ranges from simple gum inflammation, called gingivitis, to serious damage to the tissue and bone supporting the teeth. In the worst cases, you can lose teeth.

In gingivitis, the gums become red and swollen. They can bleed easily. Gingivitis is a mild form of gum disease. You can usually reverse it with daily brushing and flossing and regular cleanings by a dentist or dental hygienist. Untreated gingivitis can lead to periodontitis. If you have periodontitis, the gums pull away from the teeth and form pockets that become infected. If not treated, the bones, gums and connective tissue that support the teeth are destroyed.

Your teeth are made of a hard, bonelike material. Inside the tooth are nerves and blood vessels. You need your teeth for many activities you may take for granted. These include eating, speaking and even smiling. But tooth disorders are nothing to smile about. They include problems such as cavities (also known as tooth decay), infections, and injuries.

The most familiar symptom of a tooth problem is a toothache. Others include worn-down or loose teeth. It's important that you see a dentist if you have any problems with your teeth. Fortunately, you can prevent many tooth disorders by taking care of your teeth and keeping them clean.

It's important to take care of your mouth and teeth starting in childhood. If you don't, you could have problems with your teeth and gums - like cavities or even tooth loss.

Here's how to keep your mouth and teeth healthy:

·         Brush your teeth every day with a fluoride toothpaste

·         Clean between your teeth every day with floss or another type of between-the-teeth cleaner

·         Snack smart - limit sugary snacks

·         Don't smoke or chew tobacco

·         See your dentist or oral health professional regularly

Content

Cervicitis

Causes

Symptoms

Exams and Tests

Treatment

Outlook (Prognosis)

Possible Complications

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Prevention

             

Cervicitis is swelling or inflamed tissue of the end of the uterus (cervix).

Causes

Cervicitis is most often caused by an infection that is caught during sexual activity. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that can cause cervicitis include:

  • Chlamydia

  • Gonorrhea

  • Herpes virus (genital herpes)

  • Human papilloma virus (genital warts)

  • Trichomoniasis

Other things that can cause cervicitis include:

  • A device inserted into the pelvic area such as a cervical cap, diaphragm, or pessary

  • Allergy to spermicides used for birth control

  • Allergy to latex in condoms

  • Exposure to a chemical

Cervicitis is very common. It affects more than one half of all women at some point during their adult life. Risks include:

  • High-risk sexual behavior

  • History of STIs

  • Many sexual partners

  • Sex (intercourse) at an early age

  • Sexual partners who have engaged in high-risk sexual behavior or have had an STI

Bacteria (such as staphylococcus and streptococcus) and too much growth of normal bacteria in the vagina (bacterial vaginosis) can also cause cervicitis.

Symptoms

Symptoms include:

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding that occurs after intercourse, after menopause, or between periods

  • Unusual vaginal discharge that does not go away: discharge may be gray, white or yellow in color

  • Painful sexual intercourse

  • Pain in the vagina

  • Pressure or heaviness in the pelvis

Note: There may be no symptoms. Women who may be at risk for chlamydia should be tested for this infection, even if they do not have symptoms.

Exams and Tests

A pelvic exam is done to look for:

  • Discharge from the cervix

  • Redness of the cervix

  • Swelling (inflammation) of the walls of the vagina

Tests that may be done include:

  • Inspection of the discharge under a microscope (may show candidiasis, trichomoniasis, or bacterial vaginosis)

  • Pap test

  • Tests for gonorrhea or chlamydia

Rarely, colposcopy and biopsy of the cervix is necessary.

Treatment

Antibiotics are used to treat chlamydia or gonorrhea. Drugs called antivirals may be used to treat herpes infections.

Hormonal therapy (with estrogen or progesterone) may be used in women who have reached menopause.

When these treatments have not worked or when cervicitis has been present for a long time, treatment may include:

  • Cryosurgery (freezing)

  • A small probe with an electric current running through it is used to burn or destroy the tissue

  • Laser therapy

Outlook (Prognosis)

Most of the time, simple cervicitis usually heals with treatment if the cause is found and there is a treatment for that cause.

Possible Complications

Cervicitis may last for months to years. Cervicitis may lead to pain with intercourse (dyspareunia).

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of cervicitis.

Prevention

Things you can do to reduce your risk of developing cervicitis include:

  • Avoid irritants such as douches and deodorant tampons.

  • Make sure that any foreign objects you insert into your vagina (such as tampons) are properly placed. Be sure to follow instructions on how long to leave it inside, how often to change it, or how often to clean it.

  • Make sure your partner is free of any STI. You and your partner should not have sex with any other people.

  • Use a condom every time you have sex to lower your risk of getting an STI. Condoms are available for both men and women, but are most commonly worn by the man. A condom must be used properly every time.

 

Source: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001495.htm