Cushing syndrome

Contents

General Information

Causes

Symptoms

Exams and Tests

Treatment

Outlook (Prognosis)

Possible Complications

When to Contact a Medical Professional

 

General Information

Cushing syndrome is a disorder that occurs when your body is exposed to high levels of the hormone cortisol. It may also occur if you take too much cortisol or other steroid hormones.

Endocrine glands release hormones (chemical messengers) into the bloodstream to be transported to various organs and tissues throughout the body. For instance, the pancreas secretes insulin, which allows the body to regulate levels of sugar in the blood. The thyroid gets instructions from the pituitary to secrete hormones which determine the pace of chemical activity in the body (the more hormone in the bloodstream, the faster the chemical activity; the less hormone, the slower the activity).

Causes

Cushing syndrome may be caused by taking too much corticosteroid medications, such as prednisone and prednisolone. These drugs are used to treat conditions such as asthma and rheumatoid arthritis.

Other people develop Cushing syndrome because their bodies produce too much cortisol, a hormone normally made in the adrenal gland. Causes of too much cortisol are:

  • Cushing's disease, when the pituitary gland makes too much of the hormone ACTH. ACTH then signals the adrenal glands to produce cortisol. Tumor of the pituitary gland may cause this condition.
  • Tumor of the adrenal gland
  • Tumor elsewhere in the body that produces cortisol
  • Tumors elsewhere in the body that produce ACTH (such as the pancreas, lung, and thyroid)

Symptoms

Most people with Cushing syndrome will have:

  • Upper body obesity (above the waist) and thin arms and legs
  • Round, red, full face (moon face)
  • Slow growth rate in children

Skin changes that are often seen:

  • Acne or skin infections
  • Purple marks (1/2 inch or more wide) called striae on the skin of the abdomen, thighs, and breasts
  • Thin skin with easy bruising

Muscle and bone changes include:

  • Backache, which occurs with routine activities
  • Bone pain or tenderness
  • Collection of fat between the shoulders (buffalo hump)
  • Rib and spine fractures (caused by thinning of the bones)
  • Weak muscles

Women with Cushing syndrome often have:

  • Excess hair growth on the face, neck, chest, abdomen, and thighs
  • Menstrual cycle that becomes irregular or stops

Men may have:

Other symptoms that may occur with this disease:

  • Mental changes, such as depression, anxiety, or changes in behavior
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Increased thirst and urination

Exams and Tests

Blood sugar and white blood cell counts may be high. Potassium level may be low.

Laboratory tests that may be done to diagnose Cushing syndrome and identify the cause are:

Tests to determine the cause or complications may include:

High cholesterol, including high triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) may also be present.

Treatment

Treatment depends on the cause.

Cushing syndrome caused by corticosteroid use:

  • Slowly decrease the drug dose (if possible) under medical supervision.
  • If you cannot stop taking the medication because of disease, your high blood sugar, high cholesterol levels, and bone thinning or osteoporosis should be closely monitored.

Cushing syndrome caused by a pituitary or a tumor that releases ACTH (Cushing's disease):

  • Surgery to remove the tumor
  • Radiation after removal of a pituitary tumor (in some cases)
  • You may need hydrocortisone (cortisol) replacement therapy after surgery, and possibly continued throughout your life

Cushing syndrome due to an adrenal tumor or other tumors:

  • Surgery to remove the tumor
  • If the tumor cannot be removed, medications to help block the release of cortisol

Outlook (Prognosis)

Removing the tumor may lead to full recovery, but there is a chance that the condition will return.

Survival for people with ectopic tumors depends on the tumor type. Untreated, Cushing syndrome can be life-threatening.

Possible Complications

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of Cushing syndrome.

 

Source: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/cushingssyndrome.html

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